- About Smoothed Sunspot Number
- The short history of the SSN Smoothed Sunspot Number at Luxorion
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- About Sunspot cycles
- Theory to explain solar cycles variability proposed by Jean-Pierre Desmoulins
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- Daily Sunspots groups
- All daily drawings of the sunspot groups and USSPS produced by INAF - Catania Astrophysical Observatory from 2009 up today are available in this page. The drawings of sunspot groups and pores are maken by a Cooke refractor (150mm/2230 mm) on a 24.5 cm diameter projected image of the Sun.
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- Estimated International Sunspot Number
- The estimated international sunspot number (EISN) is a daily value obtained by a simple average over available sunspot counts from prompt stations in the SILSO network.
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- Monitors the space weather parameters essential for HF radio, including SSN/SFI, Ap/Kp, X-ray/Proton flux, and Auroral activity. IonoProbe downloads near-real time satellite and ground station data, stores information for future use and displays it in a user-friendly way.
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- Maunder's Butterfly Diagram
- How to understand when a new solar cycle starts.
At the beginning of a new solar cycle, sunspots tend to form at high latitudes, but as the cycle reaches a maximum the spots form at lower latitudes.
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- NASA Sunspot Cycle Predictions
- Nasa MSFC predictions on the behavior of current sunspot cycle.
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- Real time sunspots number
- Space Weather: Real-Time 24hr Effective Sunspot Number
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- RWC Belgium
- World data center for the sunspot index
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- Solar Region Data - SunSpots
- Solar Region Data Current Regions with Sunspots Summary, an useful tool for predictions
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- Sunspot Index and Long-term Solar Observations
- The Solar Influences Data analysis Center SIDC is a department of the Royal Observatory of Belgium and its mission is to preserve, develop and diffuse the knowledge of the long-term variations of solar activity.
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- Sunspot Index Since 1750
- The yearly, black, up to 1750, and monthly red, from 1750 up to now, sunspot numbers provided by the Royal Observatory of Belgium SILSO
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- Sunspot numbers explained
- Definition of smoothed sunspot number and R12 index
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- Sunspots explained
- History, activity, glossary and modern reseach about suspots
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- Understanding Solar Indices
- Comprehensive guide to understanding of solar indices, reading this article you will allow a better understanding and interpretation of propagation forecast bulletins and propagation reports
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